Taking the findings of the dissertation into consideration, it is clear to see that the concept of freedom of religion, as espoused in the UNDR (1947), ECHR (1950) and ICCPR (1966) fundamentally exists in theory yet cannot be guaranteed in practice within a British context. This dissertation examined the relevance of religion in Europe in the 21st Century and upon recognising its salience to the modern, western world – as demonstrated through the rise of Islam, analysed the concept of the Muslim Cultural Defence; a reactionary affront to secularism in Europe and indeed Britain, as demonstrated in the general pattern of de-Christianisation throughout Europe. The fundamental Muslim resentment at the British, political, secularist reaction to the Salman Rushdie Affair polarised factions of Muslim communities, solidifying the Cultural Defence and regarding any heterodoxy within such communities as an attack on their Islamic way of life; of which apostasy is the worst offence. Through the case studies of British apostates and ex-Muslim, Christian converts, it is evident that freedom of religion exists but for a few, as if it truly existed in practice, the likes of Nissar Hussain would not feel compelled to set up safe havens for fellow apostates. Yet it is Nissar’s phrase ‘I may as well be living in Pakistan’ that annihilates the belief of freedom of religion, as the comparison of the United Kingdom to a country that continues to witness the killing of religious minorities, is indeed a dire blow to British values and promises of religious freedom.

1 Comment

  1. May God bless Nissar and family. It is a shame that this happens in the country of Wesley Knox Wycliffe and other great Christian thinkers. The word of God tells us that the enemies of Truth will always fight against it. I encourage all of those who leave Islam for the Truth in Jesus that our God will keep them and if it is his will to pay the ultimate price our reward in heaven will be worth it


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